Figure of Speech, Types of Figure of Speech and Examples

Figure of Speech, Types of Figure of Speech and Examples


Figure of Speech

Language can be used in two ways. These are the literal and figurative use of the word. Literal language is direct, uses the true definition and meaning of idioms along with words. However, when figuratively spoken, the meaning of any word or phrase will depend on the context in which it is used. A way of speaking is based on the rhetorical department or this figurative language. When using speech figures, sentences will differ from their actual meaning in order to give these words a more specific and specific meaning.

Let’s take a closer look at the topic of figure of speech in English,Types of Figure of Speech and Examples :


It is the fact that the powerless of two objects with various relations between them is compared to the strong. Four elements are used in the analogy, which are similar, simulated, analogy of direction, analogy of analogy.

Note: We should distinguish well between simile and simile. We can think like this, they compare us to our mother or father. In other words, we are compared to the mother. It is then a powerful, resembling weak that is likened based on this knowledge. (Mother and father are stronger than we can keep in mind here.)

  • When dissolving like soap in water.

So water (like), soap (simulated), which is compared to water soap is the common point of the two. Melting (analogy) and like (analogy).


All 4 elements of the analogy are used from this example. In any case, it does not have to be 4 elements about simile. It is sufficient to use the similar and simulated.


Metaphor is a concept based on an analogy based on metaphorical meaning. We can also define it as a figure of speech extending etymologically from Ancient Greece. It comes from the word ‘metafora’, a Latin and Greek word by origin. Unrelated words are not used in metaphors. On the contrary, it is done by creating depth in different expressions. The “Less is more” philosophy is important in most parts of our lives. The simpler and clearer the narration is, the more clear and understandable the message that is intended to be conveyed, we agree on this issue. However, there are some expressions that even if it is not decorated with wax, it can be expressed in different metaphors and can easily be found in its mind on the opposite side, which we call metaphor. In fact, it is usually called metaphor but it is slightly different from the metaphor.

Instead of saying it is a metaphor by itself, it may be a more accurate expression if we say that the foundation is a metaphor that is also a metaphor. We try to explain a subject or a situation, or to exchange an emotion with the other person, we explain what we really want to tell with different metaphors. We can also call it an art of speech. Understanding this art brings with it a sense of intelligence and humor because it smells a lot of intelligence in metaphor. Metaphor is not only used in the field of writing or literature; We encounter examples of conceptual metaphor, metaphor in sociology, metaphor in architecture and even metaphor in psychology.

  • John is a goat.

Here John is not really a goat. John was used as a metaphor for being stubborn.


We call personification to give a human property to non-human beings. It comes from the word person. We can remember the personification from the word person by bringing the person to our mind.

  • A rain starts or thinner, then look at the joy in the soil, the birds told me that you are going to distant lands. That beautiful sound of mountain mountain has traveled all around.

While the joys of the soil, the speech of the birds, the sound navigation, are the features of the human, we say that the art of personification was utilized by giving to non-human beings.



It is the art of telling the idea that is meant to be explained by making it larger or smaller.

  • The wave of the sea did not go as far as my heart.

In this example, he explains that the heart is largely offended. That’s why hyperbole is used.


Onomatopoeia is one of the issues that we often encounter in daily life. If we describe it briefly, we can say the words that are inspired by the sounds of living or inanimate beings in nature and emit those sounds. People sometimes need to use reflection words to strengthen their expression. The sounds of some beings in nature can sometimes be used to express other situations related to those beings and sometimes similar.

  • Can you hear the clicks coming from the roof?

In the example, the click that normally comes to our ear comes from the word reflection. This sound made when touching an object with medium hardness caused the word click to occur. In this way, the words that come out with the sense of hearing are accepted as onomatopoeia.

  • Do you know the reason for the noise outside?
  • The monkey ate the beans in his hand.
  • I could not sleep through my mother snort during the night.
  • The flowing waters of the waterfall took all my troubles.
  • The food in the cauldron was boiling scalding.
  • I don’t want to hear the buzz of the fly standing by my ear.
  • He suddenly exploded when he threw the ball into the thorns.
  • I lubricated the creaking door hinges beautifully.
  • Noisy water comes from the spring.
  • Do not squish among you, it is a shame.


Idiom is a word formed by using more than one word together and rarely in the connotation of a single word to express a certain concept, a certain emotion or situation. If we give an example from Turkish, we can show thousands of them such as “mouth-beating, spreading flour, sitting sitting, removing the pods from the mouth, fell to the uncle…”. Examples such as evening meal, cheddar, water, eye, gedik can be given for single item idioms.

  • Collar shrug. (Bored of a person or situation)
  • Blasting fire. (Excessively angry, angry)
  • Get into the eye. (To gain interest and value)
  • To be thrown at the shoe (losing its importance)
  • Turn the wardrobe. (It is used for those who secretly turn work without knowing someone.)


These are the utterances of the public, which have stereotyped forms that express the judgments, experiences, wise thoughts or advice based on long trials of people in the past. Proverbs shows different features in terms of format than other types of writing. Writing types such as stories, novels, poems, essays are formed by combining many sentences and integrating them in terms of meaning. However, proverbs usually consist of one, at most two sentences. All emotions and thoughts fit in this one sentence. These sentences do not vary from person to person. It is the common property of the people and is said by the people in the same way.

  • A mischievous worker crime always finds materials. (When a poor worker fails to fulfill the task successfully, he bears the materials or external factors he uses.)
  • A bird in hand is much better than two birds in a branch. (What we have is much more valuable than what we hope to achieve.)
  • The cat is literally nine creatures. (It is used for people who can easily overcome even if they are in trouble.)
  • Movements speak louder than words. (Actions reflect the human character better because it is easy to say something but it is difficult to act as said)