Direct and Indirect Speech With Examples and Detailed Explanations
Direct speech is the ones that the person establishes himself / herself. Usually used in writing language such as novels, stories etc.
Transferring the sentence that someone else says is called indirect speech. It is also called reported speech. Usually, it is used in spoken language. If the transmitted action is done in the past, the sentence becomes the past tense.
- He said; the newspaper is very interesting.
- He said the newspaper was very interesting.
Time changes in indirect speech;
- He said; I live in Island.
- He said he lived in Island.
- He said; I am reading book.
- He said he was reading book.
- He said; I visited France three times.
- He said he had visited France three times.
- He said; I went to holiday last year.
- He said he had gone to holiday the year before.
- He said; I already eaten meat.
- He said he had already eaten meat.
- He said; I am going to find a new girlfriend.
- He said he was going to find a new girlfriend.
- He said; I will give my mother a call.
- He said he would he would give his mother a call.
- He said; I have been working on that agency for over two years.
- He said he had have been working on that agency for over two years.
- He said; I can come tonight with my brother.
- He said he could come that night with his brother.
- He said; I have to done this work tonight.
- He said had to done this work that night.
If the transmitted action is expressed in broad tense, past tense or future tense, the time used remains unchanged.
- He says the newspaper is interesting.
- He has said that he reads the newspaper every day.
- He will say that he reads the newspaper every day.
If the subject is always referring to an action that maintains its correctness, then the broad time is used.
- The sun rises in the east sets in the west and this is an unchanging rule.
While the speech is being transferred, it is necessary to change the pronoun so that it becomes compatible with the object in the sentence.
- She said, I want to go to Paris.
- She said she wanted to go to Paris.
When we pass a sentence indirectly, some words in the sentence change. This change is made in order not to distort the meaning in the sentence.
- Jake said; I will buy the new car tomorrow.
- Jake said that he would buy the new car the next day.
Changes in time of adverbs;
- Today-the next day
- Tonight-that night
- The day after tomorrow-in two days time
- Next week/year -following week/year
- Yesterday-the day before
- The day before yesterday-two days before
Here is Direct, Indirect(Reported) Speech Chart, Example Sentences
|Tense||Direct Speech||Reported Speech|
|Present Simple||I like ice cream.||He said that he liked ice cream.|
|Present Continuous||I am living in Paris.||He said that he was living in Paris.|
|Past Simple||I bought a car.||He said he bought a car.|
|Past Continuous||I was walking along the Street.||He said he had been walking along the Street.|
|Present Perfect||I haven’t seen Mary.||He said he hadn’t seen Mary.|
|Past Perfect||I had taken Spanish lessons before.||He said he had taken Spanish lessons before.|
|Will||I’II see you later.||He said he would see me later.|
|Would||I would help, but…||He said he would help but…|
|Can||I can speak perfect Spanish.||He said he could speak perfect Spanish.|
|Could||I could swim when I was four.||He said he could swim when he was four.|
|Should||I should call my mother||He said he should call her mother.|
|Might||I might be late.||He said he might be late.|