Participles, Definitions and Example Sentences

English Participles, Definitions and Example Sentences

Participles, Definitions and Example Sentences


Participles

Participles are known as adjective verbs. They are words derived from the verb and used as nouns and adjectives. In English, it’s divided into three different groups: Past Participle, Present Participle and Perfect Participle.

Present Participle: V + -ing

The verb in gerund form. In the Present Participle form, the verb only takes the –ing tag and continues to retain its verb feature completely.



Places of Use

1 – Describes or shortens one of the two actions taken at the same time by the same subject. For example:

  • He was sitting by the fire and he was drinking milk.

 

The Present Participle version of this sentence is as follows:

  • Sitting by the fire, he was drinking milk or drinking milk, he was sitting by the fire.
  • We walked along the river and we whistled as we were walking.

The Present Participle version of this sentence is as follows:

  • Walking along the river, we whistled or whistling, we walked along the river.

 

2 – Describes or shortenes the previous action from 2 actions taken by the same subject one after the other. For example:

  • John took the action movie out of the camera and developed it.

The Present Participle form of this sentence:

  • Taking the film out of the camera, John developed it.
  • Tom opened the drawer and got gun.

The Present Participle form of this sentence:

  • Opening the drawer, Tom got gun.
  • Emma picked up the telephone and dialed the number.

The Present Participle form of this sentence:

  • Picking up the telephone, Emma dialed the number.
  • Taking out her book, the policeman asked some questions.

3 – Since – Because – Abbreviates As and the next sentence. For example:

  • Because you felt tired, you went to bed early. -> Feeling tired, you went to bed early.
  • As Melina is unemployed, Melina does not have much Dollars. -> Being unemployed, Melina does not have much Dollars.
  • Since Fatty is the youngest child, she is her mother’s favourite. -> Being the youngest child, she is her mother’s favourite.

Note: We can use two participants one after another. However, we have to bring another sentence behind them.



For examples;

  • As he did not know another language and did not have any friends there, she did not want to stay in the London. -> Not knowing another language and not having any friends there, she did not want to stay in the London.

4 – Shortens the active structure in adjective clauses. For example;

  • The boys who attend this school must wear school uniforms. -> The boys attending this school must wear school uniforms.

5 – Shortens the sentences formed with While and When. For example;

Angelina hurt her leg while she was playing basketball. -> Angelina hurt her leg (while) playing basketball.

Past Participle: V3

1 – Describes the passive of two actions simultaneously. For example;

Amrilno went into the room and three guards accompanied her. -> Accompanied by three guards, she went into the room. (Present Participle) -> Being accompanied by three guards, she went into the room.

2 – Since – Because – As and the subsequent passive shortens the structure. For example;

  • Because his rejected her, she got angry. -> Rejected by his, she got angry.
  • As she was convinced that we were going to prison her, she refused to eat anything. -> Convinced that we were going to prison her, she refused to eat anything.
Perfect Participle: HAVING + V3

1 – Describes what happened before two different actions performed one after the other by the same subject and emphasizes that the action is over. For example;

After she had finished her homework, she went out. -> (After) Having finished her homework, she went out.

2 – Because – Since – As. It is used instead of a sentence containing followed by Perfect Tense. For example;

Because you had seen his before, you could easily recognized his. -> Having seen his before, you could easily recognized his.

 

V1 V2 V3 List in English;

Present – V1 Past – V2 Past participle – V3
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
drive drove driven
drink drank drunk
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt



Present – V1 Past – V2 Past participle – V3
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
leave left left
lend lent lent
lie lay lain
lose lost lost
make made made
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
stand stood stood
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written

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